- A potentially lethal syndrome usually triggered by inhalation anaesthetics or suxamethonium.
- The underlying genetic susceptibility is most often due to a range of autosomal-dominant mutations in RYR1.
- Caused by an increase in metabolic rate driven by an increase in intracellular calcium levels in muscle.
- Presents with increased carbon dioxide production, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and metabolic acidosis.
- A definitive diagnosis requires muscle contracture testing after the acute episode has resolved.
- The mainstay of treatment includes discontinuation of the triggering agent, administration of intravenous dantrolene, and maintenance of normal core temperature.
- Rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, hyperkalaemia, and DIC are frequently seen.
- If the diagnosis is confirmed, first-degree relatives must be contacted and tested.
Other related conditions
- Respiratory failure
- Serotonin syndrome
- Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
- Overview of thyroid dysfunction
- Acute exacerbation of congestive heart failure
- Cardiac arrest
- Acute liver failure
- Compartment syndrome of extremities
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation
- Heat stroke
- Overview of dysrhythmias (cardiac)
- Overview of substance abuse and overdose
- Assessment of hyperkalaemia
Last updated: Dec 18, 2012